Canary Deployments using Istio
One of the benefits of the Istio project is that it provides the control needed to deploy canary services. The idea behind canary deployment (or rollout) is to introduce a new version of a service by first testing it using a small percentage of user traffic, and then if all goes well, increase, possibly gradually in increments, the percentage while simultaneously phasing out the old version. If anything goes wrong along the way, we abort and roll back to the previous version. In its simplest form, the traffic sent to the canary version is a randomly selected percentage of requests, but in more sophisticated schemes it can be based on the region, user, or other properties of the request.
Depending on your level of expertise in this area, you may wonder why Istio’s support for canary deployment is even needed, given that platforms like Kubernetes already provide a way to do version rollout and canary deployment. Problem solved, right? Well, not exactly. Although doing a rollout this way works in simple cases, it’s very limited, especially in large scale cloud environments receiving lots of (and especially varying amounts of) traffic, where autoscaling is needed.
Canary deployment in Kubernetes
As an example, let’s say we have a deployed service, helloworld version v1, for which we would like to test (or simply roll out) a new version, v2. Using Kubernetes, you can roll out a new version of the helloworld service by simply updating the image in the service’s corresponding Deployment and letting the rollout happen automatically. If we take particular care to ensure that there are enough v1 replicas running when we start and pause the rollout after only one or two v2 replicas have been started, we can keep the canary’s effect on the system very small. We can then observe the effect before deciding to proceed or, if necessary, roll back. Best of all, we can even attach a horizontal pod autoscaler to the Deployment and it will keep the replica ratios consistent if, during the rollout process, it also needs to scale replicas up or down to handle traffic load.
Although fine for what it does, this approach is only useful when we have a properly tested version that we want to deploy, i.e., more of a blue/green, a.k.a. red/black, kind of upgrade than a “dip your feet in the water” kind of canary deployment. In fact, for the latter (for example, testing a canary version that may not even be ready or intended for wider exposure), the canary deployment in Kubernetes would be done using two Deployments with common pod labels. In this case, we can’t use autoscaling anymore because it’s now being done by two independent autoscalers, one for each Deployment, so the replica ratios (percentages) may vary from the desired ratio, depending purely on load.
Whether we use one deployment or two, canary management using deployment features of container orchestration platforms like Docker, Mesos/Marathon, or Kubernetes has a fundamental problem: the use of instance scaling to manage the traffic; traffic version distribution and replica deployment are not independent in these systems. All replica pods, regardless of version, are treated the same in the
kube-proxy round-robin pool, so the only way to manage the amount of traffic that a particular version receives is by controlling the replica ratio. Maintaining canary traffic at small percentages requires many replicas (e.g., 1% would require a minimum of 100 replicas). Even if we ignore this problem, the deployment approach is still very limited in that it only supports the simple (random percentage) canary approach. If, instead, we wanted to limit the visibility of the canary to requests based on some specific criteria, we still need another solution.
With Istio, traffic routing and replica deployment are two completely independent functions. The number of pods implementing services are free to scale up and down based on traffic load, completely orthogonal to the control of version traffic routing. This makes managing a canary version in the presence of autoscaling a much simpler problem. Autoscalers may, in fact, respond to load variations resulting from traffic routing changes, but they are nevertheless functioning independently and no differently than when loads change for other reasons.
Istio’s routing rules also provide other important advantages; you can easily control fine-grained traffic percentages (e.g., route 1% of traffic without requiring 100 pods) and you can control traffic using other criteria (e.g., route traffic for specific users to the canary version). To illustrate, let’s look at deploying the helloworld service and see how simple the problem becomes.
We begin by defining the helloworld Service, just like any other Kubernetes service, something like this:
apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: helloworld labels: app: helloworld spec: selector: app: helloworld ...
We then add 2 Deployments, one for each version (v1 and v2), both of which include the service selector’s
app: helloworld label:
apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: helloworld-v1 spec: replicas: 1 template: metadata: labels: app: helloworld version: v1 spec: containers: - image: helloworld-v1 ... --- apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: helloworld-v2 spec: replicas: 1 template: metadata: labels: app: helloworld version: v2 spec: containers: - image: helloworld-v2 ...
Note that this is exactly the same way we would do a canary deployment using plain Kubernetes, but in that case we would need to adjust the number of replicas of each Deployment to control the distribution of traffic. For example, to send 10% of the traffic to the canary version (v2), the replicas for v1 and v2 could be set to 9 and 1, respectively.
However, since we are going to deploy the service in an Istio enabled cluster, all we need to do is set a routing
rule to control the traffic distribution. For example if we want to send 10% of the traffic to the canary, we could use
to set a routing rule something like this:
$ kubectl apply -f - <<EOF apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3 kind: VirtualService metadata: name: helloworld spec: hosts: - helloworld http: - route: - destination: host: helloworld subset: v1 weight: 90 - destination: host: helloworld subset: v2 weight: 10 --- apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3 kind: DestinationRule metadata: name: helloworld spec: host: helloworld subsets: - name: v1 labels: version: v1 - name: v2 labels: version: v2 EOF
After setting this rule, Istio will ensure that only one tenth of the requests will be sent to the canary version, regardless of how many replicas of each version are running.
Autoscaling the deployments
Because we don’t need to maintain replica ratios anymore, we can safely add Kubernetes horizontal pod autoscalers to manage the replicas for both version Deployments:
$ kubectl autoscale deployment helloworld-v1 --cpu-percent=50 --min=1 --max=10 deployment "helloworld-v1" autoscaled
$ kubectl autoscale deployment helloworld-v2 --cpu-percent=50 --min=1 --max=10 deployment "helloworld-v2" autoscaled
$ kubectl get hpa NAME REFERENCE TARGET CURRENT MINPODS MAXPODS AGE Helloworld-v1 Deployment/helloworld-v1 50% 47% 1 10 17s Helloworld-v2 Deployment/helloworld-v2 50% 40% 1 10 15s
If we now generate some load on the helloworld service, we would notice that when scaling begins, the v1 autoscaler will scale up its replicas significantly higher than the v2 autoscaler will for its replicas because v1 pods are handling 90% of the load.
$ kubectl get pods | grep helloworld helloworld-v1-3523621687-3q5wh 0/2 Pending 0 15m helloworld-v1-3523621687-73642 2/2 Running 0 11m helloworld-v1-3523621687-7hs31 2/2 Running 0 19m helloworld-v1-3523621687-dt7n7 2/2 Running 0 50m helloworld-v1-3523621687-gdhq9 2/2 Running 0 11m helloworld-v1-3523621687-jxs4t 0/2 Pending 0 15m helloworld-v1-3523621687-l8rjn 2/2 Running 0 19m helloworld-v1-3523621687-wwddw 2/2 Running 0 15m helloworld-v1-3523621687-xlt26 0/2 Pending 0 19m helloworld-v2-4095161145-963wt 2/2 Running 0 50m
If we then change the routing rule to send 50% of the traffic to v2, we should, after a short delay, notice that the v1 autoscaler will scale down the replicas of v1 while the v2 autoscaler will perform a corresponding scale up.
$ kubectl get pods | grep helloworld helloworld-v1-3523621687-73642 2/2 Running 0 35m helloworld-v1-3523621687-7hs31 2/2 Running 0 43m helloworld-v1-3523621687-dt7n7 2/2 Running 0 1h helloworld-v1-3523621687-gdhq9 2/2 Running 0 35m helloworld-v1-3523621687-l8rjn 2/2 Running 0 43m helloworld-v2-4095161145-57537 0/2 Pending 0 21m helloworld-v2-4095161145-9322m 2/2 Running 0 21m helloworld-v2-4095161145-963wt 2/2 Running 0 1h helloworld-v2-4095161145-c3dpj 0/2 Pending 0 21m helloworld-v2-4095161145-t2ccm 0/2 Pending 0 17m helloworld-v2-4095161145-v3v9n 0/2 Pending 0 13m
The end result is very similar to the simple Kubernetes Deployment rollout, only now the whole process is not being orchestrated and managed in one place. Instead, we’re seeing several components doing their jobs independently, albeit in a cause and effect manner. What’s different, however, is that if we now stop generating load, the replicas of both versions will eventually scale down to their minimum (1), regardless of what routing rule we set.
$ kubectl get pods | grep helloworld helloworld-v1-3523621687-dt7n7 2/2 Running 0 1h helloworld-v2-4095161145-963wt 2/2 Running 0 1h
Focused canary testing
As mentioned above, the Istio routing rules can be used to route traffic based on specific criteria, allowing more sophisticated canary deployment scenarios. Say, for example, instead of exposing the canary to an arbitrary percentage of users, we want to try it out on internal users, maybe even just a percentage of them. The following command could be used to send 50% of traffic from users at some-company-name.com to the canary version, leaving all other users unaffected:
$ kubectl apply -f - <<EOF apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3 kind: VirtualService metadata: name: helloworld spec: hosts: - helloworld http: - match: - headers: cookie: regex: "^(.*?;)?(email=[^;]*@some-company-name.com)(;.*)?$" route: - destination: host: helloworld subset: v1 weight: 50 - destination: host: helloworld subset: v2 weight: 50 - route: - destination: host: helloworld subset: v1 EOF
As before, the autoscalers bound to the 2 version Deployments will automatically scale the replicas accordingly, but that will have no affect on the traffic distribution.
In this article we’ve seen how Istio supports general scalable canary deployments, and how this differs from the basic deployment support in Kubernetes. Istio’s service mesh provides the control necessary to manage traffic distribution with complete independence from deployment scaling. This allows for a simpler, yet significantly more functional, way to do canary test and rollout.
Intelligent routing in support of canary deployment is just one of the many features of Istio that will make the production deployment of large-scale microservices-based applications much simpler. Check out istio.io for more information and to try it out. The sample code used in this article can be found here.