Setting Request Timeouts
This task shows you how to setup request timeouts in Envoy using Istio.
Before you begin
Setup Istio by following the instructions in the Installation guide.
Deploy the Bookinfo sample application.
Initialize the application version routing by running the following command:
istioctl create -f samples/bookinfo/kube/route-rule-all-v1.yaml
Note: This task assumes you are deploying the application on Kubernetes. All of the example commands are using the Kubernetes version of the rule yaml files (e.g.,
samples/bookinfo/kube/route-rule-all-v1.yaml). If you are running this task in a different environment, change
kubeto the directory that corresponds to your runtime (e.g.,
samples/bookinfo/consul/route-rule-all-v1.yamlfor the Consul-based runtime).
A timeout for http requests can be specified using the httpReqTimeout field of a routing rule. By default, the timeout is 15 seconds, but in this task we’ll override the
reviews service timeout to 1 second. To see its effect, however, we’ll also introduce an artificial 2 second delay in calls to the
Route requests to v2 of the
reviewsservice, i.e., a version that calls the
cat <<EOF | istioctl replace -f - apiVersion: config.istio.io/v1alpha2 kind: RouteRule metadata: name: reviews-default spec: destination: name: reviews route: - labels: version: v2 EOF
Add a 2 second delay to calls to the
cat <<EOF | istioctl replace -f - apiVersion: config.istio.io/v1alpha2 kind: RouteRule metadata: name: ratings-default spec: destination: name: ratings route: - labels: version: v1 httpFault: delay: percent: 100 fixedDelay: 2s EOF
Open the Bookinfo URL (http://$GATEWAY_URL/productpage) in your browser
You should see the Bookinfo application working normally (with ratings stars displayed), but there is a 2 second delay whenever you refresh the page.
Now add a 1 second request timeout for calls to the
cat <<EOF | istioctl replace -f - apiVersion: config.istio.io/v1alpha2 kind: RouteRule metadata: name: reviews-default spec: destination: name: reviews route: - labels: version: v2 httpReqTimeout: simpleTimeout: timeout: 1s EOF
Refresh the Bookinfo web page
You should now see that it returns in 1 second (instead of 2), but the reviews are unavailable.
Understanding what happened
In this task, you used Istio to set the request timeout for calls to the
reviews microservice to 1 second (instead of the default 15 seconds). Since the
reviews service subsequently calls the
ratings service when handling requests, you used Istio to inject a 2 second delay in calls to
ratings, so that you would cause the
reviews service to take longer than 1 second to complete and consequently you could see the timeout in action.
You observed that the Bookinfo productpage (which calls the
reviews service to populate the page), instead of displaying reviews, displayed the message: Sorry, product reviews are currently unavailable for this book. This was the result of it receiving the timeout error from the
If you check out the fault injection task, you’ll find out that the
productpage microservice also has its own application-level timeout (3 seconds) for calls to the
reviews microservice. Notice that in this task we used an Istio route rule to set the timeout to 1 second. Had you instead set the timeout to something greater than 3 seconds (e.g., 4 seconds) the timeout would have had no effect since the more restrictive of the two will take precedence. More details can be found here.
One more thing to note about timeouts in Istio is that in addition to overriding them in route rules, as you did in this task, they can also be overridden on a per-request basis if the application adds an “x-envoy-upstream-rq-timeout-ms” header on outbound requests. In the header the timeout is specified in millisecond (instead of second) units.
Remove the application routing rules.
istioctl delete -f samples/bookinfo/kube/route-rule-all-v1.yaml
If you are not planning to explore any follow-on tasks, refer to the Bookinfo cleanup instructions to shutdown the application.