Enabling Rate Limits
This task shows you how to use Istio to dynamically limit the traffic to a service.
Before you begin
Setup Istio in a Kubernetes cluster by following the quick start instructions in the Installation guide.
Deploy the Bookinfo sample application.
Initialize the application version routing to direct
reviewsservice requests from test user “jason” to version v2 and requests from any other user to v3.
istioctl create -f samples/bookinfo/kube/route-rule-reviews-test-v2.yaml istioctl create -f samples/bookinfo/kube/route-rule-reviews-v3.yaml
Note: if you have conflicting rule that you set in previous tasks, use
istioctl replaceinstead of
Istio enables users to rate limit traffic to a service.
ratings as an external paid service like Rotten Tomatoes® with
1qps free quota. Using Istio we can ensure that
1qps is not breached.
Point your browser at the Bookinfo
If you log in as user “jason”, you should see black ratings stars with each review, indicating that the
ratingsservice is being called by the “v2” version of the
If you log in as any other user (or logout) you should see red ratings stars with each review, indicating that the
ratingsservice is being called by the “v3” version of the
memquotaadapter with rate limits.
Save the following YAML snippet as
apiVersion: config.istio.io/v1alpha2 kind: memquota metadata: name: handler namespace: istio-system spec: quotas: - name: requestcount.quota.istio-system # default rate limit is 5000qps maxAmount: 5000 validDuration: 1s # The first matching override is applied. # A requestcount instance is checked against override dimensions. overrides: # The following override applies to traffic from 'rewiews' version v2, # destined for the ratings service. The destinationVersion dimension is ignored. - dimensions: destination: ratings source: reviews sourceVersion: v2 maxAmount: 1 validDuration: 1s
and then run the following command:
istioctl create -f ratelimit-handler.yaml
This configuration specifies a default 5000 qps rate limit. Traffic reaching the ratings service via reviews-v2 is subject to a 1qps rate limit. In our example user “jason” is routed via reviews-v2 and is therefore subject to the 1qps rate limit.
Configure rate limit instance and rule
Create a quota instance named
requestcountthat maps incoming attributes to quota dimensions, and create a rule that uses it with the memquota handler.
apiVersion: config.istio.io/v1alpha2 kind: quota metadata: name: requestcount namespace: istio-system spec: dimensions: source: source.labels["app"] | source.service | "unknown" sourceVersion: source.labels["version"] | "unknown" destination: destination.labels["app"] | destination.service | "unknown" destinationVersion: destination.labels["version"] | "unknown" --- apiVersion: config.istio.io/v1alpha2 kind: rule metadata: name: quota namespace: istio-system spec: actions: - handler: handler.memquota instances: - requestcount.quota
Save the configuration as
ratelimit-rule.yamland run the following command:
istioctl create -f ratelimit-rule.yaml
Generate load on the
productpagewith the following command:
while true; do curl -s -o /dev/null http://$GATEWAY_URL/productpage; done
productpagein your browser.
If you log in as user “jason” while the load generator is running (i.e., generating more than 1 req/s), the traffic generated by your browser will be rate limited to 1qps. The reviews-v2 service is unable to access the ratings service and you stop seeing stars. For all other users the default 5000qps rate limit will apply and you will continue seeing red stars.
Conditional rate limits
In the previous example we applied a rate limit to the
ratings service without regard to non-dimension attributes. It is possible to conditionally apply rate limits based on arbitrary attributes using a match condition in the quota rule.
For example, consider the following configuration:
apiVersion: config.istio.io/v1alpha2 kind: rule metadata: name: quota namespace: istio-system spec: match: source.namespace != destination.namespace actions: - handler: handler.memquota instances: - requestcount.quota
This configuration applies the quota rule to requests whose source and destination namespaces are different.
Understanding rate limits
In the preceding examples we saw how Mixer applies rate limits to requests that match certain conditions.
Every named quota instance like
requestcount represents a set of counters. The set is defined by a Cartesian product of all quota dimensions. If the number of requests in the last
expiration duration exceed
maxAmount, Mixer returns a
RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED message to the proxy. The proxy in turn returns status
HTTP 429 to the caller.
memquota adapter uses a sliding window of sub second resolution to enforce rate limits.
maxAmount in the adapter configuration sets the default limit for all counters associated with a quota instance. This default limit applies if a quota override does not match the request. Memquota selects the first override that matches a request. An override need not specify all quota dimensions. In the ratelimit-handler.yaml example, the
1qps override is selected by matching only three out of four quota dimensions.
If you would like the above policies enforced for a given namespace instead of the entire Istio mesh, you can replace all occurrences of istio-system with the given namespace.
Remove the rate limit configuration:
istioctl delete -f ratelimit-handler.yaml istioctl delete -f ratelimit-rule.yaml
Remove the application routing rules:
istioctl delete -f samples/bookinfo/kube/route-rule-reviews-test-v2.yaml istioctl delete -f samples/bookinfo/kube/route-rule-reviews-v3.yaml
If you are not planning to explore any follow-on tasks, refer to the Bookinfo cleanup instructions to shutdown the application.