Using Istio in a non-Kubernetes environment involves a few key tasks:
- Setting up the Istio control plane with the Istio API server
- Adding the Istio sidecar to every instance of a service
- Ensuring requests are routed through the sidecars
Setting up the control plane
Istio control plane consists of four main services: Pilot, Mixer, Citadel, and the API server.
Istio’s API server (based on Kubernetes’ API server) provides key functions such as configuration management and Role-Based Access Control. The API server requires an etcd cluster as a persistent store. See the instructions for setting up the API server.
For proof of concept purposes, it is possible to install a simple single container API server using the following Docker-compose file:
version: '2' services: etcd: image: quay.io/coreos/etcd:latest networks: istiomesh: aliases: - etcd ports: - "4001:4001" - "2380:2380" - "2379:2379" environment: - SERVICE_IGNORE=1 command: [ "/usr/local/bin/etcd", "-advertise-client-urls=http://0.0.0.0:2379", "-listen-client-urls=http://0.0.0.0:2379" ] istio-apiserver: image: gcr.io/google_containers/kube-apiserver-amd64:v1.7.3 networks: istiomesh: ipv4_address: 172.28.0.13 aliases: - apiserver ports: - "8080:8080" privileged: true environment: - SERVICE_IGNORE=1 command: [ "kube-apiserver", "--etcd-servers", "http://etcd:2379", "--service-cluster-ip-range", "10.99.0.0/16", "--insecure-port", "8080", "-v", "2", "--insecure-bind-address", "0.0.0.0" ]
Other Istio components
Debian packages for Istio Pilot, Mixer, and Citadel are available through the
Istio release. Alternatively, these components can be run as Docker
docker.io/istio/citadel). Note that these components are stateless and can
be scaled horizontally. Each of these components depends on the Istio API
server, which in turn depends on the etcd cluster for persistence. To
achieve high availability, each control plane service could be run as a
Nomad, where the
can be used to describe the desired properties of the control plane services. Some
of these components may require additional install artifacts to be present in the
Istio API server to function appropriately.
Adding sidecars to service instances
Each instance of a service in an application must be accompanied by the Istio sidecar. Depending on the unit of your installation (Docker containers, VM, bare metal nodes), the Istio sidecar needs to be installed into these components. For example, if your infrastructure uses VMs, the Istio sidecar process must be run on each VM that needs to be part of the service mesh.
One way to package the sidecars into a Nomad-based deployment is to add the
Istio sidecar process as a task in a
task group. A
task group is a collection of one or more related tasks that are guaranteed to be
colocated on the same host. However, unlike Kubernetes Pods, tasks in a
group do not share the same network namespace. Hence, care must be taken to
ensure that only one task group is run per host, when using
rules to transparently re-route all network traffic via the Istio
sidecar. When support for non-transparent proxying (application explicitly
talks to the sidecar) is available in Istio, this restriction will no
Routing traffic through Istio sidecars
Part of the sidecar installation should involve setting up appropriate IP Table rules to transparently route application’s network traffic through the Istio sidecars. The IP table script to setup such forwarding can be found in the here.